The Cretaceous Period was relatively warm. Oceans formed as land shifted and broke out of one big supercontinent into smaller ones.
Though dinosaurs ruled throughout this period, the dominant groups changed and new types evolved. Towards the end of the Cretaceous Period, we see the appearance of most of the famous iconic dinosaurs. Tyrannosaurus Rex, Velociraptor, Baryonyx, Triceratops, Brachiosaurus, Spinosaurus.
At this time, many new plants and flowering plants appeared. They quickly spread and became the main ground covering. Their evolution was helped by the appearance of bees to pollinate the plants.
Much of this life - including dinosaurs, pterosaurs, pliosaurs and ammonites - perished 65 million years ago when an asteroid hurtling through space hit the Earth.
It struck the Gulf of Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula with the force of 10 billion Hiroshima bombs. The meteor crater is 180km from rim to rim meaning the asteroid must have been about 10km across. This together with the gases from the massive volcanic eruptions in Western India, started a series of catastrophic changes to the environment of the Earth and a mass extinction that saw 65% of life on Earth disappear.
Life did recover but it took millions of years and it was a very different place – the time of the mammals had dawned.
Not all dinosaurs became extinct, one small group did survive - we know them today as birds.